Community Broadband Bits

Community Broadband Bits

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Short Community Broadband Interviews


The Man Behind the Mask: Christopher Mitchell Reflects on Twelve Years of Progress in Broadband — Community Broadband Bits Podcast Episode 418
Jul 7 • 54 min
This week on the Community Broadband Bits podcast we flip the microphones around. Christopher gets interviewed by Isfandiyar Shaheen, also known as Asfi, an experienced thinker on all Internet-related issues around the world and longtime friend of the…
Zoom Doctors and Online Church: Staying Healthy, Safe, and Connected in Chattanooga — Community Broadband Bits Podcast Episode 417
Jun 30 • 37 min
This week on the Community Broadband Bits podcast, Christopher talks to Deb Socia, President and CEO, and Geoff Millener, Senior Program and Operations Officer of The Enterprise Center in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Deb and Geoff share the breadth and depth…
Spanish Fork Network Brings a Generation of Savings and Community to Utah- Community Broadband Bits Podcast 416
Jun 23 • 30 min
This week on the Community Broadband Bits Podcast Christopher talks with John Bowcut, Director of Information Systems and Network Director for Spanish Fork Community Network in Spanish Fork, Utah. As John approaches the end of his career he reflects on…
Colorado’s Qwest Law: A Decade and a Half Later – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 415
Jun 16 • 59 min
It’s been 15 years since Colorado passed SB 152, the state law intended to restrict communities from building and managing their own broadband networks. A great deal has happened since: more than 140 communities have voted to opt out of the law, and…
Wireless Mesh in a Concrete Jungle: How Community Networks Build Local Ties – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 414
Jun 9 • 31 min
This week on the Community Broadband Bits podcast, Christopher talks to Scott Rasmussen, an organizer with the nonprofit, volunteer-run community network NYC Mesh. Scott shares his experiences connecting residential New Yorkers and local businesses across…
When Three Isn’t Enough: What Rural Connectivity Options Look Like in North Carolina – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 413
Jun 2 • 15 min
This week on the Community Broadband Bits podcast, Christopher talks to Tanna Greathouse, a Boone, North Carolina, resident operating an online business, Your Favorite Assistant, from home. Tanna shares her struggle with the lack of connectivity options…
How Telecom Monopolies Killed Competition in North Carolina With HB 129, Part 2 – Community Broadband Bits Podcast, Bonus Episode Eight
May 28 • 47 min
For the eighth episode of our special podcast series “Why NC Broadband Matters,” Christopher and his guests, Catharine Rice and Jack Cozort, continue their conversation on HB 129, North Carolina’s restrictive law that prevents local governments from…
How Telecom Monopolies Killed Competition in North Carolina With HB 129 – Community Broadband Bits Episode 412
May 26 • 56 min
We’ve written a lot about North Carolina’s HB 129, the anti-competition law that prevents communities in the state from investing in broadband infrastructure. This week on the Community Broadband Bits podcast, Christopher dives deeper into the history of…
Fiber-to-the-Schoolbus: Ozarks Electric Connects Students During the Pandemic – Community Broadband Bits Episode 411
May 19 • 18 min
Ever since the Covid-19 pandemic pushed schools online, rural cooperatives and other local broadband providers have been coming up with innovative ways to connect students during this difficult time. Ozarks Electric Cooperative, with its broadband…
Why Wi-Fi is Polite and Where It’s Going Next – Community Broadband Bits Episode 410
May 12 • 50 min
In this episode of the Community Broadband Bits podcast, we get an introduction to what this week’s guest calls “the most Southern of protocols” — Wi-Fi. Here to guide us is Heather “Mo” Williams, Manager of Solutions Engineering at Ruckus Networks, Wi-Fi…
A New Frontier for Broadband Funding in California – Community Broadband Bits Episode 409
May 7 • 29 min
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has worked for many years to protect privacy and civil liberties online and to support technological innovation and widespread Internet access. Ernesto Falcon, Senior Legislative Counsel at EFF, speaks with…
Checking in With Fort Collins Fiber Network, Connexion- Community Broadband Bits Episode 408
May 5 • 45 min
After a bitter battle with Comcast and a successful referendumto reclaim local authority back in 2017, Fort Collins, Colorado, is moving forward with its municipal fiber network, Connexion. The city is starting to connect residents to the network, so we…
Tullahoma Thrives With Fiber Network, Plus Straight Talk on the Pandemic
Apr 30 • 25 min
We last spoke to Brian Skelton, president of Tullahoma Utilities Authority, in 2013 for episode 54 of the Community Broadband Bits podcast. Since then, the Tennessee city’s municipal fiber network, LightTube, has continued to offer Internet access, voice,…
Heroic Partners Bring Middle Mile Fiber to Northwest Colorado With Project THOR
Apr 28 • 32 min
The breathtaking mountains of northwest Colorado have long attracted skiers and hikers, but broadband providers haven’t found the region’s rugged landscape and sparse population as appealing. Enter Project THOR, a middle mile fiber network developed out…
Digital Inclusion Saves Lives During a Pandemic
Apr 21 • 30 min
Our lives have mostly moved online as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic, but the millions of Americans who don’t have access to home broadband have been left behind. Whether it’s unavailable or just unaffordable, these families must risk their health to…
NC Needs Local Internet Choice to Tackle Pandemic – Community Broadband Bits Episode 404
Apr 14 • 21 min
The Covid-19 pandemic is affecting communities across the country in different ways. Recently, Christopher called up Scott Mooneyham, Director of Political Communications and Coordination for the North Carolina League of Municipalities, to find out how…
Benefits of Telehealth Go Beyond Covid-19 in Rural NC – Community Broadband Bits Podcast, Bonus Episode Seven
Apr 9 • 31 min
With Covid-19 cases growing across the country, it’s more important now than ever that households have access to telehealth services. For the seventh episode of the “Why NC Broadband Matters” podcast series, we spoke with Dave Kirby, president of the…
Think Local, Connect Global with Smart Wireless Policy – Community Broadband Bits Episode 403
Apr 7 • 28 min
This week on the Community Broadband Bits podcast, Christopher speaks with Steve Song, a fellow at Mozilla who works to connect unserved communities across the globe. Steve shares his background starting out at a nonprofit Internet service provider in…
How the FCC Plans to Spend $20 Billion on Rural Broadband – Community Broadband Bits Episode 402
Apr 2 • 38 min
For this episode, Christopher was joined by returning guest Jonathan Chambers to discuss the Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC’s) Rural Digital Opportunity Fund (RDOF), which will finance broadband deployment across rural America. Jonathan is a…
Lisa Gonzalez Leaves Us With a Sense of Hope – Community Broadband Bits Episode 401
Mar 31 • 24 min
The Community Broadband Networks team had to say a difficult goodbye recently to longtime Senior Researcher Lisa Gonzalez, who accepted a new position with the State of Minnesota. Before she left, Lisa sat down with Christopher to reflect on the end of an…
Bridging Divides, Building Opportunity in Rural and Urban North Carolina – Community Broadband Bits North Carolina Bonus Episode!
Mar 26 • 37 min
Early last month, before the spread of the novel coronavirus turned staying home from a quiet night in into a moral imperative, Christopher traveled to North Carolina to attend the Institute for Emerging Issues Forum at North Carolina State University.…
Connecting During a Pandemic With US Internet – Community Broadband Bits Episode 400
Mar 24 • 34 min
Not even a pandemic can stop this week’s guest, US Internet CEO Travis Carter, from finding ways to bring better connectivity to his company’s subscribers and the community. For the 400th episode of the Community Broadband Bits podcast, Christopher…
Citizens Continue to Lead the Charge in Concord, Massachusetts – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 399
Mar 17 • 27 min
When Paul Revere rode through Concord, Massachusetts, to warn the Colonists about the Red Coats, horseback was the fastest way to move information. More than 240 years later, the community that was so instrumental to founding of the United States as we…
OEC Fiber Delivering the Gigabit Service People Want in Oklahoma – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 398
Mar 10 • 41 min
Norman, Oklahoma, is known for the University of Oklahoma and, with 30,000 students enrolled, one expects Internet access to be vibrant and readily available throughout the area. It hasn’t always been that way, but thanks to Oklahoma Electric Cooperative…
Contending with the Homework Gap – Community Broadband Bits Podcast, Bonus Episode Six
Mar 5 • 34 min
This is episode number six of the special podcast project we’re working on with NC Broadband Matters to share North Carolina news, challenges, and innovations about broadband in their state. Christopher went on a trip to in February to attend the…
Talking Telehealth with Danika Tynes, Ph.D. – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 397
Mar 3 • 28 min
In February, Christopher was in North Carolina at the Institute for Emerging Issues Forum at North Carolina State University. While he was there, he had the opportunity to conduct several interviews with people engaged in research, working with boots on…
Connecting Community Colleges for Opportunity and Development – Community Broadband Bits North Carolina Bonus Episode!
Feb 27 • 20 min
Christopher went to North Carolina earlier this month to attend the Institute for Emerging Issues Forum at North Carolina State. While he was there, he interviewed Dr. Jeff Cox, President of Wilkes Community College, and Zach Barricklow Vice President of…
Southwest Minnesota Broadband Services Offering Rural Speed, Reliability – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 396
Feb 25 • 24 min
Rural areas are taking steps to improve their connectivity and are developing high-quality Internet access on par with the best services in urban centers. When smaller communities band together, they increase their chances of developing fast, affordable,…
Roberto Gallardo on the Complex Digital Divide – Community Broadband Bits North Carolina Bonus Episode!
Feb 20 • 17 min
In recent months, we’ve been working with nonprofit NC Broadband Matters to shed light on some of the connectivity issues in North Carolina. The group focuses on bringing broadband coverage to local communities for residents and businesses and have asked…
Matt Schmit Leading Broadband from Minnesota to Illinois – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 395
Feb 18 • 49 min
Minnesota’s Border to Border Broadband Development Grant Program provides funding for deployment of broadband networks in rural regions of the state. The program, which started in 2014, has helped extend necessary high-quality Internet access…
Auburn Essential Services Steady as It Grows – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 394
Feb 11 • 29 min
Auburn Essential Service (AES) is one of those networks that has been serving the community for years with a steady presence and a strong commitment to the community. This week, Christopher talks with AES General Manager Chris Schweitzer about their fiber…
North Carolina Co-ops Partner for Broadband – Community Broadband Bits Podcast, Bonus Episode Five
Feb 6 • 33 min
This is our fifth episode of the podcast project we’re working on with nonprofit NC Broadband Matters to share broadband news, challenges, and innovations from North Carolina. NC Broadband Matters works to find ways to bring ubiquitous broadband coverage…
Rural Tribal Priority Window Now Open; Advice from MuralNet – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 393
Feb 4 • 46 min
On February 3rd, 2020, the FCC opened the 2.5 GHz Rural Tribal Priority Window, a six month period in which federally recognized Tribes or Alaska Native Villages have the opportunity to apply for licenses to unassigned spectrum over their Tribal lands.…
Setting the Bar High in Colorado: Longmont’s NextLight – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 392
Jan 28 • 29 min
NextLight, the municipal Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) network in Longmont, Colorado, has been serving residents and businesses in the community since 2014 and offers reliable gigabit connectivity at affordable rates. This week, Director of NextLight, Valerie…
Ponca City Looks Forward with Fiber – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 391
Jan 21 • 26 min
People with an interest in municipal networks usually know about Ponca City, Oklahoma’s free municipal fixed wireless network because it’s been around for years. In the summer of 2019, however, community leaders decided it was time to start offering…
Collaboration Across the State Line, Idaho Falls and UTOPIA Fiber – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 390
Jan 14 • 38 min
Idaho Falls has had publicly owned fiber within the community for years, but until recently, limited its use to dark fiber leases and public power purposes. Now, the community is working with UTOPIA Fiber to expand the network in order to serve all…
Back in Opelika, Alabama, with Mayor Gary Fuller – Community Broadband Bit Podcast 389
Jan 7 • 26 min
When Mayor Gary Fuller of Opelika, Alabama, was on the podcast back in 2013, the community was building their municipal Fiber-to-the-Home network. He’s back this week to talk about all the events that have occurred in his community since then; Opelika has…
North Carolina’s Unique Broadband History and Lessons for Moving Forward – Community Broadband Bits Podcast, North Carolina Bonus Episode Four
Jan 2 • 62 min
We’re starting off the new year with episode four of the new podcast project we’re working on with nonprofit NC Broadband Matters. The organization focuses on finding ways to bringing ubiquitous broadband coverage to local communities to residents and…
Predictions for 2020, Reviewing 2019 – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 388
Dec 31, 2019 • 42 min
It’s the end of the year once again, which means the Community Broadband Networks team takes their places in front of the mic for the predictions show. In addition to offering our expectations for 2020, we review what happened this past year and compare…
Holiday Bonus Rebroadcast – Eric Lampland on Indirect Cost Savings
Dec 24, 2019 • 25 min
It was about five years ago that we brought consultant Eric Lampland from Lookout Point Communications into the office for episode 80 of the Community Broadband Bits Podcast. We’ve completed more than 300 other episodes since then, but his insight still…
Advice for Communities from Industry Guru Doug Dawson – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 387
Dec 17, 2019 • 29 min
Doug Dawson from CCG Consulting and author of the POTs and PANs: Pretty Advanced New Stuff by CCG blog met up with Christopher back in October in Alexandria, Virginia, and the two recorded this week’s podcast episode. They were attending most recent…
Medina County Fiber Network and Lit Communities Reach for Ohio Residents – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 386
Dec 10, 2019 • 37 min
The Medina County Fiber Network (MCFN) has already made important strides in north central Ohio. The network, which offers dark fiber and lit services, provides important connectivity for carriers, institutions, and businesses. In this interview, we hear…
Mapping Data and Dollars – Community Broadband Bits Podcast, North Carolina Bonus Episode Three
Dec 5, 2019 • 53 min
This week is episode three of the new podcast project we’re working on with the nonprofit NC Broadband Matters, whose focus is on bringing ubiquitous broadband coverage to local communities for residents and businesses in North Carolina. The ten episode…
Indigenous Community Launches First Community Broadband Network in Hawai’i – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 385
Dec 3, 2019 • 27 min
For the third year, the Internet Society worked with locals to hold an annual Indigenous Connectivity Summit as a way to teach and share information. In November, participants collaborated to deploy a fixed wireless community broadband network in a small…
Rustling Up Fixed Wireless Internet Access in the Rural West – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 384
Nov 26, 2019 • 31 min
Some of the most rural areas in the country are in the American western states of Wyoming, Nebraska, and Colorado. This week’s guest is Matt Larsen, CEO of fixed wireless Internet service provider Vistabeam. His company has made it their mission to deploy…
Tri-County Rural Electric Delivering Connectivity, Expanding Partnerships, in Appalachians – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 383
Nov 19, 2019 • 23 min
Tri-County Electric Cooperative in north central Pennsylvania has listened to its members’ wishes and is developing a Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) network for Internet access. While Christopher was at the October Broadband Communities Economic Development…
Gallops and Gigabits; Ocala Knows the Need for Speed in Florida – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 382
Nov 12, 2019 • 26 min
Whenever Christopher attends a Broadband Communities event, he returns with great stories from cities and towns across the U.S. that have invested in publicly owned Internet infrastructure. This week, we share his interview with Mel Poole, Ocala Fiber…
Fiber Rich Wilson – Community Broadband Bits Podcast, North Carolina Bonus Episode Two!
Nov 7, 2019 • 29 min
Last week, we unveiled the new podcast project we’re working on with the nonprofit NC Broadband Matters, whose focus is on bringing ubiquitous broadband coverage to local communities for residents and businesses in North Carolina. The ten episode podcast…
Envisioning the Future with Jon Sallet from the Benton Institute for Broadband and Society – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 381
Nov 5, 2019 • 40 min
In late October 2019, Christopher travelled to the D.C. area to attend a Broadband Communities Economic Development event and while he was there, he sat down with Executive Director Adrianne Furniss and Senior Fellow Jon Sallet from the Benton Institute…
Analyzing FCC Data Collection with Derek Turner from Free Press – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 380
Oct 29, 2019 • 36 min
In August 2019, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) announced that they would begin to restructure their data collection techniques forming the basis of national broadband availability maps. The nonprofit Free Press submitted comments, as did the…
Overbuilding Encourages Competition – Community Broadband Bits Podcast, North Carolina Bonus Episode One!
Oct 25, 2019 • 28 min
We’re pleased to bring you the first episode from a special bonus series of the Community Broadband Bits Podcast titled “Why NC Broadband Matters.” The series is a collaboration with the nonprofit NC Broadband Matters, whose focus is on facilitating the…
Observations from Tech Writer Karl Bode – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 379
Oct 22, 2019 • 31 min
If you’re a regular reader of MuniNetworks.org, you’ve seen Karl Bode’s name and it’s almost certain you’ve read his work elsewhere. Karl has had his finger on the pulse of telecom, broadband, and related legislative events for a long time. This week,…
South Bend, Indiana, Integrates Technology and Innovation with a Practical Approach – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 378
Oct 15, 2019 • 29 min
South Bend, Indiana, is a mid-sized city of around 100,000 people where they are making practical use of their dark fiber network and technology. In episode 378 of the podcast, Christopher talks with Denise Linn Riedl, Chief Innovation Officer. Denise…
Crazy Talk Rears Its Head Again – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 377
Oct 8, 2019 • 37 min
Hey, Community Broadband Bits fans, it’s time for Crazy Talk again! This time, our Communications Specialist Jess Del Fiacco joins Christopher and I to address recent insanity attacking municipal networks. “What IS Crazy Talk,” you say? Every once in…
The Internet Society Leads Charge to Connect, Collaborate for Decades – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 376
Sep 30, 2019 • 33 min
The history of the Internet Society (ISOC) reaches back to the early 1990s when a group of early Internet pioneers, realizing the power of connectivity, developed an organization aimed at bringing safe and secure Internet access to everyone. Since then,…
Inside the Connect America Fund with Carol Mattey – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 375
Sep 24, 2019 • 35 min
The Connect America Fund (CAF) from the federal government has been both praised and criticized as a mechanism to expand rural broadband deployment. In this episode of the podcast, Principal of Mattey Consulting Carol Mattey talks in depth with…
Exploring Eastern Tennessee’s BrightRidge Network – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 374
Sep 17, 2019 • 25 min
Even though the state of Tennessee adopted legislation long ago to discourage municipal networks, local communities in the state are finding ways to deliver high-quality Internet access via public utilities. This week, Chief Broadband Officer from…
Innovating for Community Benefits in Clarksville, Tennessee – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 373
Sep 10, 2019 • 24 min
This week, we have a returning guest from Tennessee to tell us about the many positive changes occurring in Clarksville, home of CDE Lightband. Christy Batts, Broadband Division Director at the network joins Christopher; her last appearance on the podcast…
Pew Puts State Broadband Policy in One Place – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 372
Sep 3, 2019 • 27 min
For community leaders, advocates, and researchers who follow broadband policy, trying to stay up-to-date on the many variations of state policy across the U.S. is a daunting task. As approaches change, the work becomes more complicated. Now, the Pew…
Deep Dive Into 5G with PCMag Mobile Expert – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 371
Aug 27, 2019 • 32 min
When we released our Pocket Guide to 5G Hype, we expected to see some reactions from others on the unrealistic expectations about 5G. When this week’s guest contacted us because he disagreed with some of the Pocket Guide content, however, we knew we…
Realtors a Voice for Property Owners as Colorado Advances Broadband – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 370
Aug 20, 2019 • 24 min
Multiple studies in recent years indicate that properties with fast, reliable Internet access sell faster, bring in a higher price, and are in demand by potential buyers. Properties with slow or no Internet access languish. In Colorado, where the market…
South Dakota Fiber All About the Local – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 369
Aug 13, 2019 • 25 min
When rural Internet access providers work together to reach common goals, they improve their chances of succeeding. Groups such as the South Dakota Telecommunications Association (SDTA) help members get organized and pursue common needs together. The SDTA…
The State of State Preemption, Nineteen is the Number – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 368
Aug 6, 2019 • 32 min
An increasing number of local communities are investigating ways to improve connectivity through municipal networks. Some of these communities must find a way to overcome state laws that preclude them from investing in broadband infrastructure, or have…
Clarksville, Arkansas, Building Millennial Mecca with Fiber – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 367
Jul 30, 2019 • 24 min
John Lester, General Manager of Clarksville Connected Utilities in Arkansas, was on our show several years ago to talk about his work in Chanute, Kansas. Since then, he’s moved on to Clarksville to bring the community’s infrastructure up-to-date with…
Top Experts Sound Off on Sprint and T-Mobile Merger – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 366
Jul 23, 2019 • 50 min
The Sprint / T-Mobile merger has been in process for about a year now, with a series of odd, dramatic twists and turns. Recently, a group of state attorneys general sued to stop the transaction. This week, Christopher talks with telecom policy experts…
Rio Blanco Exceeds Expectations in Colorado – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 365
Jul 16, 2019 • 26 min
Rio Blanco County in western Colorado is more than 3,200 square miles with a population of only about 6,400 people in the entire county. Due to the low population density and rural nature of much of the county, large corporate Internet access providers…
David Young Shares the Story of Lincoln – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 364
Jul 9, 2019 • 29 min
This week, we’re bringing another podcast interview that Christopher conducted while at Mountain Connect in Colorado. David Young, former Fiber Infrastructure and Right-of-Way Manager for the city of Lincoln, Nebraska, sat down to reminisce about the…
Mammoth Networks Big on Connecting the West – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 363
Jul 2, 2019 • 32 min
Summer is the time for the Mountain Connect Broadband Development Conference, one of the events that Christopher is sure to attend every year. This year, it was held in Dillon, Colorado, and while he was enjoying the scenery, he collected a series of…
Building a New Path Toward Tribal Connectivity – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 362
Jun 25, 2019 • 34 min
Matt Rantanen, director of technology at the Southern California Tribal Chairmen’s Association and director of the Tribal Digital Village Network, has been working for years to get tribal communities connected to broadband. In his conversation with…
5G Absurdity, Ammon Affordability, Speed Realities, and USF Caps – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 361
Jun 18, 2019 • 35 min
This week, Communications Specialist Jess Del Fiacco interviews Christopher about some of the many events that we’ve been following lately. Jess and Christopher start off the show with a healthy dose of outrage as they comment on an advert from Verizon…
SiFi Speaks on Fullerton Open Access Project – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 360
Jun 11, 2019 • 25 min
This spring, SiFi Networks and Fullerton, California, announced that they will be working together to deploy an open access Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) network across the city of 140,000 people. SiFi will fund and build the network and has already signed up…
An Inside Perspective on Urban Fiber Deployment: US Internet’s Travis Carter – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 359
Jun 4, 2019 • 32 min
We regularly share stories about new fiber optic networks from local communities, cooperatives, and even local independent Internet access companies. Once in a while, we like to get an idea of what practical matters affect deployment and this week, we…
Firefly Fiber All the Buzz in Central Virginia – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 358
May 28, 2019 • 39 min
The Central Virginia Electric Cooperative (CVEC) announced in January 2018 that they had solidified plans to deploy fiber across 14 counties for smart grid operations and to bring Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) to the region. The project, dubbed Firefly Fiber…
Nimble Customer-centric Approach Sets Ting Apart – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 357
May 21, 2019 • 28 min
In early April while Christopher was at the 2019 Broadband Communities Summit in Austin, he recorded a series of interviews for the podcast. We’ve been sharing them over the past two months. This week we’re presenting his conversation with Director of…
Legislative Intent in Arkansas: A Talk With Senator Davis – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 356
May 14, 2019 • 20 min
It’s mid-May and while some states’ legislatures are still in session, other’s have already debated new legislation, voted, and adopted new laws. This week, we talk with one Senator from Arkansas who, along with her colleagues, are interested in bringing…
Talking Rural Broadband, the Internet, and Media with Dr. Christopher Ali – Broadband Bits Podcast 355
May 7, 2019 • 28 min
The Austin, Texas, 2019 Broadband Communities Summit was about a month ago, but we’re still enjoying the experience by sharing Christopher’s onsite podcast interviews. This week, he and University of Virginia Assistant Professor Christopher Ali have an…
Highland, Illinois, Always Working for A Better Community Network Experience – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 354
Apr 30, 2019 • 24 min
As part of our series of interviews conducted during the 2019 Broadband Communities Summit in Austin, Texas, earlier in April, we’re sharing Christopher’s interview with Angela Imming. Angela is the Director of Technology and Innovation for the city of…
Doug Dawson Shares Surprises and Safe Bets – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 353
Apr 23, 2019 • 32 min
Doug Dawson, President of CCG Consulting and author of the POTS and PANS blog, was willing to sit down with Christopher for episode 353 of the podcast this week. Christopher interviewed Doug in Austin, Texas, at the 2019 Broadband Communities Summit. They…
Telemedicine Today: More Than Sending X-rays – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 352
Apr 16, 2019 • 35 min
This week, we have another interview that Christopher recorded while he was at the 2019 Broadband Communities Summit in Austin, Texas. Dr. Robert Wack from Westminster, Maryland, where the town is partnering with Ting Internet, sat down for a conversation…
Spillover and Sharing for Better Connectivity – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 351
Apr 10, 2019 • 32 min
There are recognizable and obvious benefits that occur when a fiber is deployed in a community. New access to high-quality connectivity, educational opportunities for students in schools, better reliability, jobs from new employers, and possible ISP…
Those Bewitching Broadband Bills; States Making Moves – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 350
Apr 2, 2019 • 31 min
Interest in community broadband and broadband service from cooperatives has grown significantly within the past few years. This legislative session, lawmakers in states such as Vermont, North Carolina, and Arkansas, have decided that they’d like to start…
FCC Considers Retroactive Rule Change for Viasat – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 349
Mar 26, 2019 • 38 min
Over the past few years, Partner Jonathan Chambers of Conexon has become our “go-to guy” for FCC conversations. This week, he joins us to talk about a recent issue that revolves around the Connect America Fund Phase II auction and one of the grant…
Examining the Internet and Machine Learning with David Weinberger – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 348
Mar 19, 2019 • 41 min
We bring listeners many stories from communities across the country who are taking steps to improve connectivity and find better ways to access the Internet. This week, Christopher and his guest talk about why we value the Internet. Author David…
Comedian Tackles Connectivity – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 347
Mar 12, 2019 • 29 min
On a typical episode of the Community Broadband Bits podcast, you’ll hear from a guest whose community may be in the process of deploying a publicly owned fiber network, or an elected official who has championed a broadband-friendly policy for their city…
Minnesota Homegrown Connectivity, Christensen Communications – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 346
Mar 5, 2019 • 35 min
Brent Christensen, Chief Operating Officer of Christensen Communications, came into our Minneapolis office to sit down and have a chat with Christopher this week for podcast 346. Their interview comes a short time after Christopher and several other…
Small Town, Big Connections With Marshall FiberNet – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 345
Feb 26, 2019 • 22 min
This week, Marshall FiberNet’s Customer Service and Marketing Manager Jessica Slusarski talks to Christopher about the town’s investment in their community broadband network. Quiet and quaint Marshall, Michigan, didn’t expect to become one of the state’s…
Pemiscot-Dunklin Electric Cooperative Steps Up, Offers FTTH in Missouri’s Bootheel – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 344
Feb 19, 2019 • 25 min
Missouri is one of the states where electric cooperatives are taking the lead in bringing high-quality Internet access to rural areas. This week, we talk with Jack Davis, Vice President of IT and Special Projects at Pemiscot-Dunklin Electric Cooperative.…
Conversing with Crawford: Community Broadband Bits Podcast 343
Feb 12, 2019 • 32 min
Harvard Professor, author, and broadband champion Susan Crawford has been incredibly busy ever since she released her latest book Fiber: The Coming Tech Revolution — And Why America Might Miss It. Fortunately for us and our listeners, she hasn’t been too…
RiverStreet Networks Reaching Across Rural North Carolina – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 342
Feb 5, 2019 • 22 min
While in North Carolina at the recent Let’s Connect! speaking tour, Christopher sat down with Greg Coltrain, Vice President of Business Development of RiverStreet Networks. Greg participated in panel discussions in all three communities where the…
Open Broadband Opening Up Rural Possibilities – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 341
Jan 29, 2019 • 21 min
It’s cold in our Minneapolis office this week, but two of our staff — Christopher Mitchell and Katie Kienbaum — are off enjoying mild January weather in North Carolina. They’re conversing with the good folks in three different communities, where they also…
Oregon’s MINET: New Approach, New Expansion – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 340
Jan 22, 2019 • 30 min
Before the Oregon communities of Monmouth and Independence banded together to form MINET, many people in the community were accessing the Internet via old dial-up connections. This week, MINET’s General Manager Don Patten comes on the show to discuss the…
Getting Your Community Off to A Quick Start With CN Quickstart – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 339
Jan 15, 2019 • 30 min
In September 2018, we announced that we would begin working with NEO Partners LLC to bring the Community Networks Quickstart Program to local communities interested in exploring the possibilities of publicly owned broadband networks. For this week’s…
Taking Control Through Software Defined Networks – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 338
Jan 8, 2019 • 37 min
Many of us are accustomed to Internet access from companies that own the infrastructure, offer only a few options, and are one of a small number of providers. For the most part, we’ve learned to accept that model, but will it ever change? This week’s…
Predictions for 2019, Year in Review for 2018 – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 337
Dec 26, 2018 • 45 min
We left our crystal ball, tarot cards, and astrology charts at home, but that won’t stop us from trying to predict what will happen in 2019 for this week’s annual predictions podcast. Each year, we reflect on the important events related to publicly owned…
Telehealth: Promoting Healthier People and Stronger Local Economies – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 336
Dec 18, 2018 • 27 min
Many of our regular listeners will recognize this week’s guest voice. Craig Settles has been operating as an industry analyst and consultant since 2006. He’s also host of the Gigabit Nation radio talk show and Director of Communities United for Broadband.…
Possibilities, Challenges, Risks : Chicopee, Massachusetts, Considers A Muni – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 335
Dec 11, 2018 • 30 min
By the time a local community is ready to light up their municipal fiber optic network, they’ve already invested several years’ worth of debate, investigation, and energy. While deploying a network is certainly a complicated task, educating the community,…
Organizing for Better Broadband in the Portland, Oregon, Region – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 334
Dec 4, 2018 • 37 min
This week on the Community Broadband Bits Podcast, we hear from Russell Senior and Michael Hanna from Portland, Oregon. Russell is President of the Personal Telco Project and Michael is a Data Engineer for Multnomah County; both are on the Board of the…
Beyond Mapping With VETRO FiberMap – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 333
Nov 27, 2018 • 33 min
Whether it’s a local government or ISP that chooses to invest in fiber optic infrastructure accurate, dependable, mapping is critical before, during, and after initial deployment. This week’s guests deliver that service through VETRO FiberMap. CEO Will…
After 15 Years, OptiLink Still Innovating in Dalton, Georgia – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 332
Nov 20, 2018 • 27 min
Dalton, Georgia’s OptiLink has served the community for around 15 years, making it one of the first citywide Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) municipal networks. In this interview, Chief Technical Services Officer of OptiLink and for Dalton Utilities Hank…
UTOPIA Is Not A Dream, It’s a Network – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 331
Nov 13, 2018 • 18 min
When anti-muni groups have taken aim at publicly owned networks, they’ve often put UTOPIA in their crosshairs. The Utah Telecommunications Open Infrastructure Agency has had times of struggle, but those days seem to be over. The network is expanding,…
Catching Up in Cali with Jory Wolf – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 330
Nov 6, 2018 • 28 min
This week, Christopher presents the last of the interviews he conducted while at the 2018 Broadband Communities Economic Development Conference in Ontario, California, in October. As long as he was in the Golden State, he decided to check in with Jory…
Political Will and Local Broadband Initiatives – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 329
Oct 30, 2018 • 28 min
While Christopher was in Ontario, California at the 2018 Broadband Communities Economic Development Conference, he took advantage of the opportunity and recorded several discussions with experts to share with our Community Broadband Bits Podcast audience.…
Getting Up to Speed With Sandy, Oregon – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 328
Oct 24, 2018 • 25 min
For the next few days, Christopher is at the 2018 Broadband Communities Economic Development Conference in Ontario, California. As he always does while he’s out of the office, rubbing elbows with folks from the field, he’s recording some interviews with…
Revisiting Reedsburg: LightSpeed’s All-Gig Telecommuter Paradise – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 327
Oct 16, 2018 • 22 min
It’s been a while since we last visited with Reedsburg Utilities Commission General Manager Brett Schuppner. He’s back on the show again to help us spread the word about this Wisconsin town’s decision to switch all their muni network subscribers to…
Small Town Does Fiber Bigger In Texas – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 326
Oct 9, 2018 • 27 min
We don’t often get the opportunity to interview people from Texas, so when we heard about Mont Belvieu’s gigabit fiber optic network we knew we had to have them on the show. When we learned that four officials from the east Texas town would join us we…
Colorado Community WISP Picks Up Slack When Incumbent Fails to Deliver – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 325
Oct 2, 2018 • 23 min
When Fairpoint wouldn’t give folks in Crestone, Colorado, what they needed after repeated requests, they decided to take care of it themselves. By 2012, Ralph Abrams and his band of Internet pioneers had created Colorado Central Telecom, providing…
Great Lakes Energy’s Big Plan for Big Fiber – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 324
Oct 1, 2018 • 22 min
Great Lakes Energy (GLE) in Michigan decided in late 2017 to approve a plan to incrementally deploy Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) to cooperative members, beginning with a pilot project in Petoskey. This week, Vice President of Communications, Marketing and…
Building Digital Equity in Detroit – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 323
Sep 18, 2018 • 39 min
This week on the podcast, we get insight into a community network that puts extra emphasis on the word “community.” Diana Nucera, Director of the Detroit Community Technology Project (DCTP) talks with Christopher about how the people in her city and their…
Stop the Spoof, Resist the Robocall – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 322
Sep 11, 2018
Caller ID spoofing, robocalls, and general spam phone calls are one of the hassles of 21st century life. This week on Community Broadband Bits, Christopher and Richard Shockey of Shockey Consulting talk about how the problem has progressed and what…
Analyzing the Auction With Jonathan Chambers – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 321
Sep 4, 2018
A year ago, we last had Jonathan Chambers of Conexon on the podcast to discuss the pros and cons of the Connect America Fund. Since then, the FCC has held an auction to expand connectivity in rural areas as part of the Connect America Fund Phase II…
Neighbors Investing Through Neighborly – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 320
Aug 28, 2018
Plenty of local communities are interested in the possibilities of creating publicly owned Internet infrastructure but pause when it comes to funding. This week on the podcast, Christopher interviews Jase Wilson, CEO, and Lindsey Brannon, Head of Public…
A Monkeybrainey Plan to Improve Connectivity in San Francisco Public Housing – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 319
Aug 21, 2018
Communities who want the best for their citizens typically recognize the importance of digital equity and often take steps to develop digital inclusion programs. Last year on the podcast, we invited folks from the ISP Monkeybrains to explain how they were…
Are CAF II Investments Helping Rural Minnesota? Blandin Report Looks at the Data – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 318
Aug 17, 2018
In the most recent report from the Blandin Foundation, Researcher Bill Coleman from Community Technology Advisors and his crew put boots to the ground to examine the results of Connect America Fund (CAF II) investments. Bill recently visited our office in…
Sometimes Things Don’t Go As Planned – Pardon Our Podcast Delay
Aug 14, 2018
They say the “finger of fate” is fickle, but this week it was our recording equipment that turned on us. Unfortunately, time constraints and prior commitments didn’t allow Christopher the opportunity to make a useable recording of his interview with Bill…
Mapping Monopolies and Making Recommendations – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 317
Aug 7, 2018
If you haven’t already taken a look at our most recent report, now is your chance to get some insight before you download it and dive in. Profiles of Monopoly: Big Cable and Telecom, written by our Hannah Trostle, recently left ILSR to attend grad school,…
Mason County PUD 3 Uses Innovation for Strategic Deployment – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 316
Jul 31, 2018
When we spoke with Justin Holzgrove, Mason PUD 3 Telecommunications & Community Relations Manager, back in October 2017, we discussed how the public utility district in Washington was about to embark on expanding its services. This week, Justin is back…
Vistabeam Internet: Driven to Connect Rural Communities – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 315
Jul 24, 2018
When you hear founder and CEO Matt Larson talk about his company Vistabeam Internet, you’ll understand he and his team received the 2018 Provider of the Year Award at Mountain Connect. At the conference in June, Matt sat down with Christopher to discuss…
DMEA Co-op Serving Up Broadband and Innovation in Colorado – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 314
Jul 17, 2018
An increasing number of local communities in Colorado are finding ways to improve rural connectivity. The Delta Montrose Electric Association (DMEA), a cooperative bringing electricity to approximately 28,000 members in southwest Colorado, is in the midst…
Catching Up With Terry Huval from Lafayette – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 313
Jul 10, 2018
We’ve been following the community of Lafayette, Louisiana, and their LUS Fiber community network from the early days. Director of Utilities Terry Huval was one of the people responsible for bringing high-quality Internet access to the community back in…
At the State Level With Tony Neal-Graves in Colorado – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 312
Jun 26, 2018
The State of Colorado has made some changes in the past few years that are improving broadband deployment, especially in rural areas. In this episode of the podcast, Christopher talks about some of those changes with Tony Neal-Graves, Executive Director…
Larimer County, Colorado, Interpreting Early Feasibility Results – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 311
Jun 20, 2018 • 32 min
Late last year, Larimer County, Colorado, commissioned a broadband feasibility study to examine the possible solutions toward better connectivity across its more than 2,600 square miles. This week, three guests from Larimer County are here to discuss the…
Cortez Discovering Future Possibilities With Muni Fiber – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 310
Jun 13, 2018
Cortez, Colorado, has been serving public facilities, community anchor institutions (CAIs), and businesses officially since 2011. In 2015, they expanded to bring fiber connectivity to more businesses; today, seven providers offer services on their open…
Making A Broadband Utility in Maine – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 309
Jun 6, 2018
The Maine towns of Baileyville and Calais are known for their beautiful scenery and their clean rural lifestyle; soon the region will also be known for its broadband. The two communities have joined together to form the Downeast Broadband Utility (DBU) in…
Postmortem in Wyoming: Cheyenne Mayor on Interrupted Legislation – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 308
May 29, 2018
Local communities considering investment to improve connectivity for businesses and residents have many factors to consider, including state laws. The best laid plans for broadband can be torpedoed if state legislators are influenced enough by incumbent…
Don’t Forget the Financing! – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 307
May 22, 2018
When municipalities and other local governments are planning for publicly owned Internet infrastructure, they must coordinate many moving pieces to get the project going and to keep it on a successful track. In this interview, Christopher and Tom…
Doug Dawson, Broadband Industry Guru – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 306
May 15, 2018
Doug Dawson and his firm, CCG Consulting, recently marked their 20th year working in the telecommunications industry. Prior to establishing the firm, Doug already had significant experience in the field, having worked in the industry since 1978. Doug…
Digging Into the Details With RVA Market Research & Consulting – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 305
May 8, 2018
RVA Market Research & Consulting is a firm known for its ability to provide detailed review, analysis, and forecast for Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) deployment. They also offer information on the needs and desires of current and potential subscribers…
Grassroots for Better Connectivity in Cambridge, Massachusetts – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 304
May 2, 2018
As Christopher rubbed elbows with other broadband advocates, policy wonks, and industry professionals at the Broadband Communities Summit in Austin, Texas, he had the opportunity to interview several people we’ve been wanting to bring on the show. Saul…
State Legislatures Take Action On Broadband – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 303
Apr 24, 2018
We’re a little off kilter these days when it comes to state legislation. Typically, we spend our efforts helping local communities stave off bills to steal, limit, or hamstring local telecommunications authority. This year it’s different so Christopher…
HBC Spreads The Know-How: Working With Others To Improve Rural Connectivity
Apr 17, 2018
For episode 302 of the Community Broadband Bits podcast, Christopher carries on his conversation with Gary Evans, retired President and CEO of Hiawatha Broadband Communications (HBC), an independent ISP in Minnesota. This is the second opportunity for…
Wireless And Wired; US Internet Knows Both – Community Broadband Bits 301
Apr 10, 2018
Deploying, maintaining, and operating a wireless network is easy, right? You just put up your equipment, sign up subscribers, and start raking in the dough, right? Not even close, says Travis Carter, one of the co-founders of US Internet and our guest for…
Neighbors Helping Neighbors For Fiber In Rural Tennessee: Newport And Morristown Join Forces – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 300
Apr 3, 2018
An increasing interest in publicly owned network projects has also spurred an increase in creative collaborations as communities work together to facilitate deployment, especially in rural areas. This week, we talk with Sharon Kyser, Marketing and Public…
Straight Talk About 5G; Potential, Limitations, Hype – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 299
Mar 27, 2018
If we want to talk technical stuff on the Community Broadband Bits podcast, we know Eric Lampland is one of the best guys to call. Eric is Founder and Principal of Lookout Point Communications. Earlier this month, he and Christopher presented information…
Central Vermont Internet: Communities Commit To Communications Union District – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 298
Mar 20, 2018
Earlier this month, twelve towns in central Vermont chose Town Meeting Day to ask local voters whether or not they want to band together to improve connectivity. Each community chose to participate in forming a regional Communications Union District,…
Hiawatha Broadband Communications: One Of The Small Players That Helped Shape The Internet – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 297
Mar 14, 2018
Before the days when Comcast, AT&T, and CenturyLink were some of only a few ISPs for subscribers to choose from, much of the country received Internet access from small Internet access companies. In episode 297 of the Community Broadband Bits podcast,…
Fibering Up Emmett, Idaho – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 296
Mar 6, 2018
Emmett, Idaho’s Systems Administrator Mike Knittel joins Christopher for episode 296 of the Community Broadband Bits podcast this week. Mike explains how the city of about 7,000 has taken a similar approach as other municipalities by first investing in…
Santa Cruz County Moving Beyond Incumbent Inaction – Community Broadband Bits 295
Feb 27, 2018
When community leaders in Santa Cruz County, California, decided to take steps to spur economic development, they knew they needed to improve local connectivity. For episode 295 of the Community Broadband Bits podcast, Policy Analyst Patrick Mulhearn from…
Virginia’s Eastern Shore Broadband Authority Steadily Expands Fiber Network – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 294
Feb 20, 2018
When the Eastern Shore of Virginia needed better Internet access, in part to ensure NASA could achieve its mission, Accomack and Northampton counties created the Eastern Shore of Virginia Broadband Authority. Its Executive Director, Robert Bridgham joins…
Arlington Expands Internet Access for Low-Income Households – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 293
Feb 13, 2018
In Virginia, Arlington has found new ways to use its municipal network to reduce the digital divide. Katie Cristol, Chair of the Arlington County Board, and Jack Belcher, County Chief Information Officer, join us for episode 293 of the Community Broadband…
FairlawnGig Keeps Businesses in Town, Attracts More – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 292
Feb 7, 2018
We are checking back in with Ernie Staten, Deputy Director of Public Service in Fairlawn, Ohio now that their muncipal Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) network - FairlawnGig - is built out and they are still building the citywide Wi-Fi network that will accompany…
Wilson Tackles Digital Divide with Pay Ahead Option – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 291
Jan 31, 2018
It was just a year ago that we highlighted a nation-leading digital inclusion effort from Wilson’s Greenlight municipal fiber network in North Carolina. That was their fourth time on the podcast, owing to the many ways Wilson has developed in ensuring its…
Wrestling With Redlining in Cleveland, Lessons For All
Jan 24, 2018
Early last year, Connect Your Community and the National Digital Inclusion Alliance released a well-researched and compelling case that AT&T had engaged in digital redlining of Cleveland, refusing to upgrade Internet access to neighborhoods with high…
Retail Muni Fiber Networks Charge Less – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 289
Jan 17, 2018
Do municipal fiber networks offer lower prices than the their competitors? Yes, almost always, according to a study from Harvard’s Berkman Klein Center called Community-Owned Fiber Networks: Value Leaders in America.David Talbot, a Fellow at Harvard’s…
North Dakota’s Exceptional Fiber Networks – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 288
Jan 9, 2018
With only about 757,000 residents and more than 710,000 square miles North Dakota is ranked 53rd in population density among U.S. states, territories, and Washington DC. There may not be many people there, but North Dakota has some of the best…
The Challenge of Mobile Only – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 287
Jan 3, 2018
With the Federal Communications Comission Republicans poised to redefine broadband to include slow, unreliable, and often bandwidth-capped mobile service, we talk with two high school students from southeast Ohio, Herron Linscott and Lilah Gagne, that…
2017 in Review and a Preview of 2018 – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 286
Dec 26, 2017
It is that time of year - as 2017 draws to a close, we pulled Nick, Hannah, Lisa, and myself back into a podcast to talk about the predictions we made one year ago on episode 234. And despite having to deal with our failed predictions from last year, we…
Catching up with Lincoln on Fiber, 5G, and US IGNITE – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 285
Dec 19, 2017
David Young is a veteran of our Community Broadband Bits podcast, having been interviewed in episodes 182, 228, and 238. For reasons that are beyond this interviewer, he still has a job in Lincoln as the Fiber Infrastructure and Right of Way Manager. Just…
Discussing the Digital Divides On Road to Digital Equity – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 284
Dec 12, 2017
If everyone subscribed to Internet access, the business models for supplying it would be much easier. But there are strong reasons for why many are locked out of Internet access today, a subject we explore with National Digital Inclusion Alliance…
Reinventing Burlington Telecom – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 283
Dec 6, 2017
We’re continuing the interviews Christopher conducted while at the November Broadband Communities Economic Development Conference in Atlanta; this week, he’s talking with Stephen Barraclough, General Manager for Burlington Telecom (BT) in Vermont. Stephen…
Organizing For a Community Network, Against Big Cable – Community Broadband Bits Podcast 282
Nov 30, 2017
Fort Collins, like more than 100 communities in Colorado, had already opted out of the state law that requires a referendum prior to a city or county investing in an Internet network, even with a partner. But it went back to another referendum a few weeks…