Podcast.__init__('The Python Podcast')

Podcast.__init__('The Python Podcast')

www.pythonpodcast.com
The podcast about Python and the people who make it great
Computational Musicology For Python Programmers
Feb 11 • 47 min
Music is a part of every culture around the world and throughout history. Musicology is the study of that music from a structural and sociological perspective. Traditionally this research has been done in a manual and painstaking manner, but the advent of…
Classic Computer Science For Pythonistas
Feb 3 • 47 min
Software development is a career that attracts people from all backgrounds, and Python in particular helps to make it an approachable occupation. Because of the variety of paths that can be taken it is becoming increasingly common for practitioners to…
What You Need To Know About Open Source Licenses And Intellectual Property
Jan 28 • 62 min
As a developer and user of open source code, you interact with software and digital media every day. What is often overlooked are the rights and responsibilities conveyed by the intellectual property that is implicit in all creative works. Software…
Counteracting Code Complexity With Wily
Jan 21 • 36 min
As we build software projects, complexity and technical debt are bound to creep into our code. To counteract these tendencies it is necessary to calculate and track metrics that highlight areas of improvement so that they can be acted on. To aid in…
Teaching Digital Archaeology With Jupyter Notebooks
Jan 13 • 49 min
Computers have found their way into virtually every area of human endeavor, and archaeology is no exception. To aid his students in their exploration of digital archaeology Shawn Graham helped to create an online, digital textbook with accompanying…
Analyzing Satellite Image Data Using PyTroll
Jan 6 • 43 min
Every day there are satellites collecting sensor readings and imagery of our Earth. To help make sense of that information, developers at the meterological institutes of Sweden and Denmark worked together to build a collection of Python packages that…
Building GraphQL APIs in Python Using Graphene with Syrus Akbary
Dec 31, 2018 • 52 min
The web has spawned numerous methods for communicating between applications, including protocols such as SOAP, XML-RPC, and REST. One of the newest entrants is GraphQL which promises a simplified approach to client development and reduced network…
AIORTC: An Asynchronous WebRTC Framework with Jeremy Lainé
Dec 23, 2018 • 40 min
Real-time communication over the internet is an amazing feat of modern engineering. The protocol that powers a majority of video calling platforms is WebRTC. In this episode Jeremy Lainé explains why he wrote a Python implementation of this protocol in…
Polyglot: Multi-Lingual Natural Language Processing with Rami Al-Rfou
Dec 16, 2018 • 43 min
Using computers to analyze text can produce useful and inspirational insights. However, when working with multiple languages the capabilities of existing models are severely limited. In order to help overcome this limitation Rami Al-Rfou built Polyglot.…
Gnocchi: A Scalable Time Series Database For Your Metrics with Julien Danjou
Dec 10, 2018 • 39 min
Do you know what your servers are doing? If you have a metrics system in place then the answer should be “yes”. One critical aspect of that platform is the timeseries database that allows you to store, aggregate, analyze, and query the various signals…
Keeping Up With The Python Community For Fun And Profit with Dan Bader
Dec 2, 2018 • 57 min
Keeping up with the work being done in the Python community can be a full time job, which is why Dan Bader has made it his! In this episode he discusses how he went from working as a software engineer, to offering training, to now managing both the Real…
Using Calibre To Keep Your Digital Library In Order with Kovid Goyal
Nov 25, 2018 • 43 min
Digital books are convenient and useful ways to have easy access to large volumes of information. Unfortunately, keeping track of them all can be difficult as you gain more books from different sources. Keeping your reading device synchronized with the…
Entity Extraction, Document Processing, And Knowledge Graphs For Investigative Journalists with Friedrich Lindenberg
Nov 18, 2018 • 39 min
Investigative reporters have a challenging task of identifying complex networks of people, places, and events gleaned from a mixed collection of sources. Turning those various documents, electronic records, and research into a searchable and actionable…
Bringing Python To The Spanish Language Community with Maricela Sanchez
Oct 28, 2018 • 19 min
The Python Community is large and growing, however a majority of articles, books, and presentations are still in English. To increase the accessibility for Spanish language speakers, Maricela Sanchez helped to create the Charlas track at PyCon US, and is…
Of Checklists, Ethics, and Data with Emily Miller and Peter Bull
Oct 21, 2018 • 45 min
As data science becomes more widespread and has a bigger impact on the lives of people, it is important that those projects and products are built with a conscious consideration of ethics. Keeping ethical principles in mind throughout the lifecycle of a…
How Python Is Used To Build A Startup At Wanderu with Chris Kirkos and Matt Warren
Oct 14, 2018 • 34 min
The breadth of use cases that Python supports, coupled with the level of productivity that it provides through its ease of use have contributed to the incredible popularity of the language. To explore the ways that it can contribute to the success of a…
Building A Game In Python At PyWeek with Daniel Pope
Oct 8, 2018 • 30 min
Many people learn to program because of their interest in building their own video games. Once the necessary skills have been acquired, it is often the case that the original idea of creating a game is forgotten in favor of solving the problems we…
Managing Application Secrets with Brian Kelly
Oct 1, 2018 • 39 min
Any application that communicates with other systems or services will at some point require a credential or sensitive piece of information to operate properly. The question then becomes how best to securely store, transmit, and use that information. The…
Django, Channels, And The Asynchronous Web with Andrew Godwin
Sep 23, 2018 • 41 min
Once upon a time the web was a simple place with one main protocol and a predictable sequence of request/response interactions with backend applications. This is the era when Django began, but in the intervening years there has been an explosion of…
The Business Of Technical Authoring With William Vincent
Sep 16, 2018 • 49 min
There are many aspects of learning how to program and at least as many ways to go about it. This is multiplicative with the different problem domains and subject areas where software development is applied. In this episode William Vincent discusses his…
Keep Your Code Clean Using pre-commit with Anthony Sottile
Sep 9, 2018 • 24 min
Maintaining the health and well-being of your software is a never-ending responsibility. Automating away as much of it as possible makes that challenge more achievable. In this episode Anthony Sottile describes his work on the pre-commit framework to…
Infection Monkey Vulnerability Scanner with Daniel Goldberg
Sep 3, 2018 • 34 min
How secure are your servers? The best way to be sure that your systems aren’t being compromised is to do it yourself. In this episode Daniel Goldberg explains how you can use his project Infection Monkey to run a scan of your infrastructure to find and…
Fast Stream Processing In Python Using Faust with Ask Solem
Aug 26, 2018 • 28 min
The need to process unbounded and continually streaming sources of data has become increasingly common. One of the popular platforms for implementing this is Kafka along with its streams API. Unfortunately, this requires all of your processing or…
Don’t Just Stand There, Get Programming! with Ana Bell
Aug 20, 2018 • 35 min
Writing a book is hard work, especially when you are trying to teach such a broad concept as programming. In this episode Ana Bell discusses her recent work in writing Get Programming: Learn To Code With Python, including her views on how to separate the…
The Masonite Web Framework With Joe Mancuso
Aug 12, 2018 • 43 min
Masonite is an ambitious new web framework that draws inspiration from many other successful projects in other languages. In this episode Joe Mancuso, the primary author and maintainer, explains his goal of unseating Django from its position of prominence…
Helping Teacher’s Bring Python Into The Classroom With Nicholas Tollervey
Aug 6, 2018 • 59 min
There are a number of resources available for teaching beginners to code in Python and many other languages, and numerous endeavors to introduce programming to educational environments. Sometimes those efforts yield success and others can simply lead to…
Continuous Delivery For Complex Systems Using Zuul with Monty Taylor
Jul 29, 2018 • 67 min
Continuous integration systems are important for ensuring that you don’t release broken software. Some projects can benefit from simple, standardized platforms, but as you grow or factor in additional projects the complexity of checking your deployments…
Michael Foord On Testing, Mock, TDD, And The Python Community
Jul 22, 2018 • 55 min
Michael Foord has been working on building and testing software in Python for over a decade. One of his most notable and widely used contributions to the community is the Mock library, which has been incorporated into the standard library. In this episode…
The Past, Present, and Future of Twisted with Moshe Zadka
Jul 15, 2018 • 34 min
Twisted is one of the earliest frameworks for developing asynchronous applications in Python and it has yet to fulfill its original purpose. It can be used to build network servers that integrate a multitude of protocols, increase the performance of your…
Mike Driscoll And His Career In Python
Jul 8, 2018 • 23 min
Mike Driscoll has been writing blogs and books for the Python community for years, including his popular series on the Python Module Of The Week. In his daily work he uses Python to test graphical interfaces written in C++ and QT for embedded platforms.…
The Pulp Artifact Repository with Bihan Zhang and Austin Macdonald
Jul 2, 2018 • 30 min
Hosting your own artifact repositories can have a huge impact on the reliability of your production systems. It reduces your reliance on the availability of external services during deployments and ensures that you have access to a consistent set of…
Bringing Africa Online At Ascoderu with Clemens Wolff
Jun 24, 2018 • 42 min
The future is here, it’s just not evenly distributed. One of the places where this is especially true is in sub-Saharan Africa which is a vast region with little to no reliable internet connectivity. To help communities in this region leapfrog…
Understanding Machine Learning Through Visualizations with Benjamin Bengfort and Rebecca Bilbro
Jun 17, 2018 • 55 min
Machine learning models are often inscrutable and it can be difficult to know whether you are making progress. To improve feedback and speed up iteration cycles Benjamin Bengfort and Rebecca Bilbro built Yellowbrick to easily generate visualizations of…
Modern Database Clients On The Command Line with Amjith Ramanujam
Jun 10, 2018 • 30 min
The command line is a powerful and resilient interface for getting work done, but the user experience is often lacking. This can be especially pronounced in database clients because of the amount of information being transferred and examined. To help…
Pandas Extension Arrays with Tom Augspurger
Jun 3, 2018 • 33 min
Pandas is a swiss army knife for data processing in Python but it has long been difficult to customize. In the latest release there is now an extension interface for adding custom data types with namespaced APIs. This allows for building and combining…
Making A Difference Through Software With Eric Schles
May 26, 2018
Software development is a skill that can create value and reduce drudgery in a wide variety of contexts. Sometimes the causes that are most in need of software expertise are also the least able to pay for it. By volunteering our time and abilities to…
Asking Questions From Data Using Active Learning with Tivadar Danka
May 20, 2018 • 27 min
One of the challenges of machine learning is obtaining large enough volumes of well labelled data. An approach to mitigate the effort required for labelling data sets is active learning, in which outliers are identified and labelled by domain experts. In…
Great Expectations For Your Data Pipelines with Abe Gong and James Campbell
May 13, 2018 • 50 min
Testing is a critical activity in all software projects, but one that is often neglected in data pipelines. The complexities introduced by the inherent statefulness of the problem domain and the interdependencies between systems contribute to make…
Exploring Color Theory In Python With Thomas Mansencal
May 6, 2018 • 57 min
We take it for granted every day, but creating and displaying vivid colors in our digital media is a complicated and often difficult process. There are different ways to represent color, the ways in which they are displayed can cause them to look…
Destroy All Software With Gary Bernhardt
Apr 29, 2018 • 52 min
Many developers enter the market from backgrounds that don’t involve a computer science degree, which can lead to blind spots of how to approach certain types of problems. Gary Bernhardt produces screen casts and articles that aim to teach these…
Scaling Deep Learning Using Polyaxon with Mourad Mourafiq
Apr 22, 2018 • 35 min
With libraries such as Tensorflow, PyTorch, scikit-learn, and MXNet being released it is easier than ever to start a deep learning project. Unfortunately, it is still difficult to manage scaling and reproduction of training for these projects. Mourad…
Electricity Map: Real Time Visibility of Power Generation with Olivier Corradi
Apr 14, 2018 • 47 min
One of the biggest issues facing us is the availability of sustainable energy sources. As individuals and energy consumers it is often difficult to understand how we can make informed choices about energy use to reduce our impact on the environment.…
Building And Growing Nylas with Christine Spang
Apr 8, 2018 • 43 min
Email is one of the oldest methods of communication that is still in use on the internet today. Despite many attempts at building a replacement and predictions of its demise we are sending more email now than ever. Recognizing that the venerable inbox is…
Synthetic Data Generation Using Mimesis with Nikita Sobolev
Apr 1, 2018 • 32 min
Most applications require data to operate on in order to function, but sometimes that data is hard to come by, so why not just make it up? Mimesis is a library for randomly generating data of different types, such as names, addresses, and credit card…
Luminoth: AI Powered Computer Vision for Python with Joaquin Alori
Mar 24, 2018 • 21 min
Making computers identify and understand what they are looking at in digital images is an ongoing challenge. Recent years have seen notable increases in the accuracy and speed of object detection due to deep learning and new applications of neural…
Thonny: The IDE For Beginning Programmers with Aivar Annamaa
Mar 18, 2018 • 29 min
Learning to program is a rewarding pursuit, but is often challenging. One of the roadblocks on the way to proficiency is getting a development environment installed and configured. In order to simplify that process Aivar Annamaa built Thonny, a Python IDE…
Keeping The Beets with Adrian Sampson
Mar 12, 2018 • 39 min
Maintaining a consistent taxonomy for your music library is a challenging and time consuming endeavor. Eventually you end up with a mess of folders and files with inconsistent names and missing metadata. Beets is built to solve this problem by…
Salabim: Logistics Simulation with Ruud van der Ham
Mar 4, 2018 • 51 min
Determining the best way to manage the capacity and flow of goods through a system is a complicated issue and can be exceedingly expensive to get wrong. Rather than experimenting with the physical objects to determine the optimal algorithm for managing…
Laboratory: Safer Refactoring with Joe Alcorn
Feb 25, 2018 • 21 min
Every piece of software that has been around long enough ends up with some piece of it that needs to be redesigned and refactored. Often the code that needs to be updated is part of the critical path through the system, increasing the risks associated…
Software Architecture For Developers with Neal Ford
Feb 17, 2018 • 50 min
Whether it is intentional or accidental, every piece of software has an existing architecture. In this episode Neal Ford discusses the role of a software architect, methods for improving the design of your projects, pitfalls to avoid, and provides some…
ZimboPy
Feb 10, 2018 • 29 min
Learning to code is one of the most effective ways to be successful in the modern economy. To that end, Marlene Mhangami and Ronald Maravanyika created the ZimboPy organization to teach women and girls in Zimbabwe how to program in Python. In this episode…
PyRay: Pure Python 3D Rendering with Rohit Pandey
Feb 4, 2018 • 42 min
Using a rendering library can be a difficult task due to dependency issues and complicated APIs. Rohit Pandey wrote PyRay to address these issues in a pure Python library. In this episode he explains how he uses it to gain a more thorough understanding of…
MonkeyType with Carl Meyer and Matt Page
Jan 27, 2018 • 48 min
One of the draws of Python is how dynamic and flexible the language can be. Sometimes, that flexibility can be problematic if the format of variables at various parts of your program is unclear or the descriptions are inaccurate. The growing middle ground…
Learn Leap Fly: Using Python To Promote Global Literacy with Kjell Wooding
Jan 21, 2018 • 43 min
Learning how to read is one of the most important steps in empowering someone to build a successful future. In developing nations, access to teachers and classrooms is not universally available so the Global Learning XPRIZE serves to incentivize the…
Healthchecks.io: Open Source Alerting For Your Cron Jobs with Pēteris Caune
Jan 13, 2018 • 27 min
Your backups are running every day, right? Are you sure? What about that daily report job? We all have scripts that need to be run on a periodic basis and it is easy to forget about them, assuming that they are working properly. Sometimes they fail and in…
Bonobo: Lightweight ETL Toolkit for Python 3 with Romain Dorgueil
Jan 6, 2018 • 53 min
A majority of the work that we do as programmers involves data manipulation in some manner. This can range from large scale collection, aggregation, and statistical analysis across distrbuted systems, or it can be as simple as making a graph in a…
Orange: Visual Data Mining Toolkit with Janez Demšar and Blaž Zupan
Dec 30, 2017 • 49 min
Data mining and visualization are important skills to have in the modern era, regardless of your job responsibilities. In order to make it easier to learn and use these techniques and technologies Blaž Zupan and Janez Demšar, along with many others, have…
Dramatiq: Distributed Task Queue For Python 3 with Bogdan Popa
Dec 23, 2017 • 38 min
A majority of projects will eventually need some way of managing periodic or long-running tasks outside of the context of the main application. This is where a distributed task queue becomes useful. For many in the Python community the standard option is…
Jake Vanderplas: Data Science For Academic Research
Dec 16, 2017 • 49 min
Jake Vanderplas is an astronomer by training and a prolific contributor to the Python data science ecosystem. His current role is using Python to teach principles of data analysis and data visualization to students and researchers at the University of…
Kenneth Reitz
Dec 10, 2017 • 42 min
Kenneth Reitz has contributed many things to the Python community, including projects such as Requests, Pipenv, and Maya. He also started the community written Hitchhiker’s Guide to Python, and serves on the board of the Python Software Foundation. This…
Asphalt: A Framework For Asynchronous Network Applications with Alex Grönholm
Dec 2, 2017 • 34 min
As we rely more on small, distributed processes for building our applications, being able to take advantage of asynchronous I/O is increasingly important for performance. This week Alex Grönholm explains how the Asphalt Framework was created to make it…
Golem: End-To-End Test Automation Framework with Luciano Renzi
Nov 25, 2017 • 54 min
The importance of testing your software is widely talked about and well understood. What is not as often discussed is the different types of testing, and how end-to-end tests can benefit your team to ensure proper functioning of your application when it…
Graphite Metrics Stack with Jason Dixon and Dan Cech
Nov 18, 2017 • 74 min
Do you know what is happening in your production systems right now? If you have a comprehensive metrics platform then the answer is yes. If your answer is no, then this episode is for you. Jason Dixon and Dan Cech, core maintainers of the Graphite…
Surprise! Recommendation Algorithms with Nicolas Hug
Nov 11, 2017 • 30 min
A relevant and timely recommendation can be a pleasant surprise that will delight your users. Unfortunately it can be difficult to build a system that will produce useful suggestions, which is why this week’s guest, Nicolas Hug, built a library to help…
Rasa: Build Your Own AI Chatbot with Joey Faulkner
Nov 4, 2017 • 49 min
With the proliferation of messaging applications, there has been a growing demand for bots that can understand our wishes and perform our bidding. The rise of artificial intelligence has brought the capacity for understanding human language. Combining…
Eliot: Effective Logging with Itamar Turner-Trauring
Oct 28, 2017 • 49 min
Understanding what is happening in a software system can be difficult, especially when you have inconsistent log messages. Itamar Turner-Trauring created Eliot to make it possible for your project to tell you a story about how transactions flow through…
Donkey: Building Self Driving Cars with Will Roscoe
Oct 21, 2017 • 33 min
Do you wish that you had a self-driving car of your own? With Donkey you can make that dream a reality. This week Will Roscoe shares the story of how he got involved in the arena of self-driving car hobbyists and ended up building a Python library to act…
Event Sourcing with John Bywater
Oct 15, 2017 • 68 min
The way that your application handles data and the way that it is represented in your database don’t always match, leading to a lot of brittle abstractions to reconcile the two. In order to reduce that friction, instead of overwriting the state of your…
Kalliope with Nicolas Marcq and Thibaud Buffet
Oct 7, 2017 • 32 min
Wouldn’t it be nice to have a personal assistant to answer your questions, help you remember important tasks, and control your environment? Meet Kalliope, a Python powered, modular, voice controlled automation platform. This week Nicolas Marcq and Thibaud…
Modoboa with Antoine Nguyen
Sep 30, 2017 • 33 min
Email has long been the most commonly used means of communication on the internet. This week Antoine Nguyen talks about his work on the Modoboa project to make hosting your own mail server easier to manage. He discusses how the project got started, the…
QuTiP with Paul Nation
Sep 23, 2017 • 36 min
The future of computation and our understanding of the world around us is driven by the quantum world. This week Paul Nation explains how the Quantum Toolbox in Python (QuTiP) is being used in research projects that are expanding our knowledge of the…
Lego Robotics with David Lechner and Denis Demidov
Sep 17, 2017 • 44 min
Do you like Legos, robots, and Python? This week I am joined by David Lechner and Denis Demidov to talk about the ev3dev project and how you can program your Lego Mindstorms with Python!
Cloud-Init with Scott Moser
Sep 10, 2017 • 49 min
Server administration is a complex endeavor, but there are some tools that can make life easier. If you are running your workload in a cloud environment then cloud-init is here to help. This week Scott Moser explains what cloud-init is, how it works, and…
Biopython with Peter Cock, Wibowo Arindrarto, and Tiago Antão
Sep 2, 2017 • 45 min
Advances in the techniques used for genome sequencing are providing us with more information to unlock the secrets of biology. But how does that data get processed and analyzed? With Python of course! This week I am joined by some of the core maintainers…
opsdroid with Jacob Tomlinson
Aug 26, 2017 • 45 min
Server administration is an activity that often happens in an isolated context in a terminal. ChatOps is a way of bringing that work into a shared environment and unlocking more collaboration. This week Jacob Tomlinson talks about the work he has done on…
Ergonomica with Liam Schumm
Aug 19, 2017 • 42 min
As developers we spend a lot of our work day in a terminal window, using shells that were designed 30 years ago. This week Liam Schumm joins me to explain why he decided to write a new, more ergonomic shell environment to simplify his workflow.
Data Retriever with Henry Senyondo
Aug 12, 2017 • 17 min
Analyzing and interpreting data is a large portion of the work involved in scientific research. Getting to that point can be a lot of work on its own because of all of the steps required to download, clean, and organize the data prior to analysis. This…
Coverage.py with Ned Batchelder
Aug 5, 2017 • 51 min
We write tests to make sure that our code is correct, but how do you make sure the tests are correct? This week Ned Batchelder explains how coverage.py fills that need, how he became the maintainer, and how it works under the hood.
Yosai with Darin Gordon
Jul 29, 2017 • 41 min
For any program that is used by more than one person you need a way to control identity and permissions. There are myriad solutions to that problem, but most of them are tied to a specific framework. Yosai is a flexible, general purpose framework for…
Moving to MongoDB with Michael Kennedy
Jul 22, 2017 • 47 min
There are dozens of decisions that need to be made when building an application. Sometimes this can lead to analysis paralysis and prevent you from making progress, so don’t let the perfect be the enemy of the good. This week Michael Kennedy shares his…
Zulip Chat with Tim Abbott
Jul 15, 2017 • 60 min
In modern work environments the email is being edged out by group chat as the preferred method of communication. The majority of the platforms used are commercial and closed source, but there is one project that is working to change that. Zulip is a…
NAPALM with David Barroso and Mircea Ulinic
Jul 8, 2017 • 58 min
Routers and switches are the stitches in the invisible fabric of the internet which we all rely on. Managing that hardware has traditionally been a very manual process, but the NAPALM (Network Automation and Programmability Abstraction Layer with…
Automat State Machines with Glyph Lefkowitz
Jul 1, 2017 • 49 min
The venerable ‘if’ statement is a cornerstone of program flow and busines logic, but sometimes it can grow unwieldy and lead to unmaintainable software. One alternative that can result in cleaner and easier to understand code is a state machine. This week…
Nuclear Engineering with Dr. Katy Huff
Jun 24, 2017 • 38 min
Access to affordable and consistent electricity is one of the big challenges facing our modern society. Nuclear energy is one answer because of its reliable output and carbon-free operation. To make this energy accessible to a larger portion of the global…
Industrial Automation with Jonas Neubert
Jun 17, 2017 • 62 min
We all use items that are produced in factories, but do you ever stop to think about the code that powers that production? This week Jonas Neubert takes us behind the scenes and talks about the systems and software that power modern facilities, the…
Jedi Code Completion with David Halter
Jun 10, 2017 • 42 min
When you’re writing python code and your editor offers some suggestions, where does that suggestion come from? The most likely answer is Jedi! This week David Halter explains the history of how the Jedi auto completion library was created, how it works…
Coconut with Evan Hubinger
Jun 3, 2017 • 33 min
Functional programming is gaining in popularity as we move to an increasingly parallel world. Sometimes you want access to purely functional syntax and capabilities but you don’t want to have to learn an entirely new language. Coconut is here to help!…
Cauldron with Scott Ernst
May 27, 2017 • 37 min
The notebook format that has been exemplified by the IPython/Jupyter project has gained in popularity among data scientists. While the existing formats have proven their value, they are still susceptible with difficulties in collaboration and…
Tech Debt and Refactoring at Yelp! with Andrew Mason
May 20, 2017 • 34 min
LBRY with Jeremy Kauffman
May 14, 2017 • 39 min
Content discovery and delivery and how it works in the digital realm is one of the most critical pieces of our modern economy. The blockchain is one of the most disruptive and transformative technologies to arrive in recent years. This week Jeremy…
Python Goes To The Movies with Dhruv Govil
May 6, 2017 • 41 min
Movies are magic, and Python is part of what makes that magic possible. We go behind the curtain this week with Dhruv Govil to learn about how Python gets used to bring a movie from concept to completion. He shares the story of how he got started in film,…
Scapy with Guillaume Valadon
Apr 29, 2017 • 31 min
Network protocols are often inscrutable, but if you have an effective way to experiment with them then they expose a lot of power. This week Guillaume Valadon explains how Scapy can be used to inspect your network traffic, test the security of your…
yt-project with Nathan Goldbaum and John Zuhone
Apr 22, 2017 • 38 min
Astrophysics and cosmology are fields that require working with complex multidimensional data to simulate the workings of our universe. The yt project was created to make working with this data and providing useful visualizations easy and fun. This week…
Scikit-Image with Stefan van der Walt and Juan Nunez-Iglesias
Apr 15, 2017 • 41 min
Computer vision is a complex field that spans industries with varying needs and implementations. Scikit-Image is a library that provides tools and techniques for people working in the sciences to process the visual data that is critical to their research.…
Oscar Ecommerce with David Winterbottom and Michael van Tellingen
Apr 8, 2017 • 53 min
If you have a product to sell, whether it is a physical good or a subscription service, then you need a way to manage your transactions. The Oscar ecommerce framework for Django is a flexible, extensible, and well built way for you to add that…
Duplicity with Kenneth Loafman
Apr 1, 2017 • 35 min
Everyone who uses a computer on a regular basis knows the importance of backups. Duplicity is one of the most widely used backup technologies, and it’s written in Python! This week Kenneth Loafman shares how Duplicity got started, how it works, and why…
Digital Identity, Privacy, and Security with Brian Warner
Mar 25, 2017 • 46 min
As the internet and digital technologies continue to infiltrate our way of life, we are forced to consider how our concepts of identity and security are reflected in these spaces. Brian Warner joins me this week to discuss his work on privacy focused…
Crossbar.io with Tobias Oberstein and Alexander Gödde
Mar 18, 2017 • 52 min
As our system architectures and the Internet of Things continue to push us towards distributed logic we need a way to route the traffic between those various components. Crossbar.io is the original implementation of the Web Application Messaging Protocol…
MetPy: Taming The Weather With Python
Mar 11, 2017 • 52 min
What’s the weather tomorrow? That’s the question that meteorologists are always trying to get better at answering. This week the developers of MetPy discuss how their project is used in that quest and the challenges that are inherent in atmospheric and…
The Update Framework: Securing Your Software Updates with Justin Cappos
Mar 4, 2017 • 37 min
If you write software then there’s a good probability that you have had to deal with installing dependencies, but did you stop to ask whether you’re installing what you think you are? My guest this week is Professor Justin Cappos from the Secure Systems…
Pandas with Jeff Reback
Feb 25, 2017 • 49 min
Pandas is one of the most versatile and widely used tools for data manipulation and analysis in the Python ecosystem. This week Jeff Reback explains why that is, how you can use it to make your life easier, and what you can look forward to in the months…
PyTables with Francesc Alted
Feb 18, 2017 • 49 min
HDF5 is a file format that supports fast and space efficient analysis of large datasets. PyTables is a project that wraps and expands on the capabilities of HDF5 to make it easy to integrate with the larger Python data ecosystem. Francesc Alted explains…
SKIDL with Dave Vandenbout
Feb 11, 2017 • 40 min
As circuits and electronic components become more complex, visual circuit building tools are more difficult to use effectively. If you wish that you could just write your circuits in Python then you’re in luck! Dave Vandenbout created a library called…
Parsing and Parsers with Dave Beazley and Erik Rose
Feb 4, 2017 • 50 min
If you have ever found yourself frustrated by a complicated regular expression or wondered how you can build your own dialect of Python then you need a parser. Dave Beazley and Erik Rose talk about what parsers are, how some of them work, and what you can…
Home Assistant with Paulus Schoutsen
Jan 28, 2017 • 41 min
Don’t you wish you could make all of your devices talk to each other? Check out Home Assistant, the Python 3 platform for unified automation. Paulus Schoutsen shares the story of how the project got started, what makes it tick, and how you can use it…
Cryptography with Paul Kehrer
Jan 21, 2017 • 42 min
Sooner or later you will need to encrypt or hash some data. Thankfully we have the Cryptography library, along with the other projects maintained by the Python Cryptographic Authority, to make sure that your crypto is done right. In this episode Paul…
Translate House with Dwayne Bailey and Ryan Northey
Jan 14, 2017 • 58 min
What is internationalization, when should you add it to your program, and how do you get started? This week Dwayne Bailey and Ryan Northey tell us about their work with Translate House and the different projects that they have built to make translating…
Morepath with Martijn Faassen
Jan 7, 2017 • 66 min
Python has a wide and growing variety of web frameworks to choose from, but if you want one with super powers then you need Morepath. This week Martijn Faassen shares the story of how Morepath was created, how it differentiates itself from the other…
ERPNext with Rushabh Mehta
Dec 31, 2016 • 30 min
If you need to track all of the pieces of a business and don’t want to use 15 different tools then you should probably be looking at an ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) system. Unfortunately, a lot of them are big, clunky, and difficult to manage, so…
Jackie Kazil
Dec 24, 2016 • 39 min
Jackie Kazil has led a distinguished and varied career with a strong focus on providing information and tools that empower others. This includes her work in data journalism, as a presidential innovation fellow, co-founding 18F, co-authoring a book, and…
Weblate with Michal Čihař
Dec 17, 2016 • 32 min
Adding translations to our projects makes them usable in more places by more people which, ultimately, makes them more valuable. Managing the localization process can be difficult if you don’t have the right tools, so this week Michal čihař tells us about…
SpaCy with Matthew Honnibal
Dec 10, 2016 • 36 min
As the amount of text available on the internet and in businesses continues to increase, the need for fast and accurate language analysis becomes more prominent. This week Matthew Honnibal, the creator of SpaCy, talks about his experiences researching…
Kinto with Alexis Metaireau and Mathieu Leplatre
Dec 3, 2016 • 56 min
Are you looking for a backend as a service offering where you have full control of your data? Look no further than Kinto! This week Alexis Metaireau and Mathieu Leplatre share the story of how Kinto was created, how it works under the covers, and some of…
Plone with Eric Steele
Nov 26, 2016 • 50 min
Plone is one of the first CMS projects to be built using Python and it is still being actively developed. This week Eric Steele, the release manager for Plone, tells us about how it got started, how it is architected, and how the community is one of its…
Retrospective
Nov 19, 2016 • 37 min
In this episode Chris and I look back at the past 83 episodes of the show and talk about what we learned, what we’ve enjoyed, and some of the highlights.
HouseCanary with Travis Jungroth
Nov 12, 2016 • 39 min
Housing is something that we all have experience with, but many don’t understand the complexities of the market. This week Travis Jungroth talks about how House Canary uses data to make the business of real estate more transparent.
Mycroft with Steve Penrod
Nov 5, 2016 • 65 min
Speech is the most natural interface for communication, and yet we force ourselves to conform to the limitations of our tools in our daily tasks. As computation becomes cheaper and more ubiquitous and artificial intelligence becomes more capable, voice…
Annapoornima Koppad
Oct 29, 2016 • 19 min
Annapoornima Koppad is a director of the PSF, founder of the Bangalore chapter of PyLadies, and is a Python instructor at the Indian Institute of Science. In this week’s episode she talks about how she got started with Python, her experience running the…
Python for GIS with Sean Gillies
Oct 22, 2016 • 37 min
Location is an increasingly relevant aspect of software systems as we have more internet connected devices with GPS capabilities. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) are used for processing and analyzing this data, and fortunately Python has a suite of…
K Lars Lohn
Oct 15, 2016 • 37 min
K Lars Lohn has had a long and varied career, spending his most recent years at Mozilla. This week he shares some of his stories about getting involved with Python, his work with Mozilla, and his inspiration for the closing keynote at PyCon US 2016. He…
Lorena Mesa
Oct 8, 2016 • 42 min
One of the great strengths of the Python community is the diversity of backgrounds that our practitioners come from. This week Lorena Mesa talks about how her focus on political science and civic engagement led her to a career in software engineering and…
Podbuzzz with Kyle Martin
Oct 1, 2016 • 38 min
Podcasts are becoming more popular now than they ever have been. Podbuzzz is a service for helping podcasters to track their reviews and imporove SEO to reach a wider audience. In this episode we spoke with Kyle Martin about his experience using Python to…
PsychoPy with Jonathan Peirce
Sep 24, 2016 • 72 min
We’re delving into the complex workings of your mind this week on Podcast.__init__ with Jonathan Peirce. He tells us about how he started the PsychoPy project and how it has grown in utility and popularity over the years. We discussed the ways that it has…
Sandstorm.io with Asheesh Laroia
Sep 17, 2016
Sandstorm.io is an innovative platform that aims to make self-hosting applications easier and more maintainable for the average individual. This week we spoke with Asheesh Laroia about why running your own services is desirable, how they have made…
Python at Zalando
Sep 10, 2016 • 40 min
Alex Martelli
Sep 3, 2016
Dave Beazley
Aug 27, 2016
GenSim with Radim Řehůřek
Aug 20, 2016 • 53 min
Being able to understand the context of a piece of text is generally thought to be the domain of human intelligence. However, topic modeling and semantic analysis can be used to allow a computer to determine whether different messages and articles are…
Python on Windows with Steve Dower
Aug 13, 2016
PyCon Canada with Francis Deslauriers and Peter McCormick
Aug 6, 2016 • 46 min
Aside from the national Python conferences such as PyCon US and EuroPyCon there are a number of regional conferences that operate at a smaller scale to service their local communities. This week we interviewed Peter McCormick and Francis Deslauriers about…
Test Engineering with Cris Medina
Jul 30, 2016 • 58 min
We all know that testing is an important part of software and systems development. The problem is that as our systems and applications grow, the amount of testing necessary increases at an exponential rate. Cris Medina joins us this week to talk about…
Crossing The Streams - Talk Python with Michael Kennedy
Jul 23, 2016 • 77 min
The same week that we released our first episode of Podcast.__init__, Michael Kennedy was publishing the very first episode of Talk Python To Me. The years long drought of podcasts about Python has been quenched with a veritable flood of quality content…
Zorg with Gunther Cox and Kevin Brown
Jul 16, 2016 • 25 min
Everyone loves to imagine what they would do if they had their own robot. This week we spoke with Gunther Cox and Kevin Brown about their work on Zorg, which is a Python library for building a robot of your own! We discussed how the project got started,…
Mypy with David Fisher and Greg Price
Jul 9, 2016 • 60 min
As Python developers we are fond of the dynamic nature of the language. Sometimes, though, it can get a bit too dynamic and that’s where having some type information would come in handy. Mypy is a project that aims to add that missing level of detail to…
BeeWare with Russell Keith-Magee
Jul 2, 2016 • 70 min
When you have good tools it makes the work you do even more enjoyable. Russel Keith-Magee has been building up a set of tools that are aiming to let you write graphical interfaces in Python and run them across all of your target platforms. Most recently…
Armin Ronacher
Jun 25, 2016 • 60 min
Armin Ronacher is a prolific contributor to the Python software ecosystem, creating such widely used projects as Flask and Jinja2. This week we got the opportunity to talk to him about how he got his start with Python and what has inspired him to create…
Bandit with Tim Kelsey, Travis McPeak, and Eric Brown
Jun 18, 2016 • 28 min
Making sure that your code is secure is a difficult task. In this episode we spoke to Eric Brown, Travis McPeak, and Tim Kelsey about their work on the Bandit library, which is a static analysis engine to help you find potential vulnerabilities before…
Sentry with David Cramer
Jun 11, 2016 • 69 min
As developers we all have to deal with bugs sometimes, but we don’t have to make our users deal with them too. Sentry is a project that automatically detects errors in your applications and surfaces the necessary information to help you fix them quickly.…
Mercurial with Augie Fackler
Jun 4, 2016 • 55 min
As developers, one of the most important tools that we use daily is our version control system. Mercurial is one such tool that is written in Python, making it eminently flexible, customizable, and incredibly powerful. This week we spoke with Augie…
Pillow with Alex Clark
May 28, 2016 • 20 min
If you need to work with images the Pillow is the library to use. The Python Image Libary (PIL) has long been the gold standard for resizing, analyzing, and processing pictures in Python. Pillow is the modern fork that is bringing the PIL into the future…
Wagtail with Tom Dyson
May 21, 2016 • 52 min
If you are operating a website that needs to publish and manage content on a regular basis, a CMS (Content Management System) becomes the obvious choice for reducing your workload. There are a plethora of options available, but if you are looking for a…
Buildbot with Pierre Tardy
May 14, 2016 • 85 min
As technology professionals, we need to make sure that the software we write is reliably bug free and the best way to do that is with a continuous integration and continuous deployment pipeline. This week we spoke with Pierre Tardy about Buildbot, which…
Onion IoT with Lazar and Zheng
May 7, 2016 • 35 min
One of the biggest new trends in technology is the Internet of Things and one of the driving forces is the wealth of new sensors and platforms that are being continually introduced. In this episode we spoke with the founder and head engineer of one such…
LibCloud with Anthony Shaw
Apr 30, 2016 • 84 min
More and more of our applications are running in the cloud and there are increasingly more providers to choose from. The LibCloud project is a Python library to help us manage the complexity of our environments from a uniform and pleasant API. In this…
Pip and the Python Package Authority with Donald Stufft
Apr 23, 2016 • 52 min
As Python developers we have all used pip to install the different libraries and projects that we need for our work, but have you ever wondered about who works on pip and how the package archive we all know and love is maintained? In this episode we…
StackStorm with Tomaž Muraus and Patrick Hoolboom
Apr 16, 2016 • 59 min
If you are responsible for managing any amount of servers, then you know that automation is critical for maintaining your sanity. This week we spoke with Tomaž Muraus and Patrick Hoolboom about their work on StackStorm, which is a platform for tracking…
Hypothesis with David MacIver
Apr 9, 2016 • 47 min
Writing tests is important for the stability of our projects and our confidence when making changes. One issue that we must all contend with when crafting these tests is whether or not we are properly exercising all of the edge cases. Property based…
Pyjion with Dino Viehland and Brett Cannon
Mar 31, 2016
Transcrypt with Jacques de Hooge
Mar 26, 2016
VPython with Ruth Chabay and Bruce Sherwood
Mar 18, 2016 • 63 min
Wouldn’t it be nice to be able to generate interactive 3D visualizations of physical systems in a declarative manner with Python? In this episode we spoke with Ruth Chabay and Bruce Sherwood about the VPython project which does just that. They tell us…
PyData London with Ian Ozsvald and Emlyn Clay
Mar 12, 2016 • 63 min
Ian Ozsvald and Emlyn Clay are co-chairs of the London chapter of the PyData organization. In this episode we talked to them about their experience managing the PyData conference and meetup, what the PyData organization does, and their thoughts on using…
Efene with Mariano Guerra
Mar 3, 2016 • 59 min
Efene is a language that runs on the Erlang Virtual Machine (BEAM) and is inspired by the Zen of Python. It is intended as a bridge language that serves to ease the transition into the Erlang ecosystem for people who are coming from languages like Python.…
Functional Python with Matthew Rocklin and Alexander Schepanovsky
Feb 28, 2016 • 80 min
What is functional programming, why would you want to use it, and how can you get started with it in Python? Our guests this week, Matthew Rocklin and Alexander Schepanovsky, help us understand all of that and more. Matthew and Alexander have each created…
Cython with Craig Citro and Robert Bradshaw
Feb 18, 2016 • 52 min
Do you find yourself reaching for a different language when you need some extra speed? With Cython you can get the best of both worlds by writing your code in Python and executing it as compiled code. In this episode we were joined by Craig Citro and…
Airflow with Maxime Beauchemin
Feb 13, 2016 • 63 min
Are you struggling with trying to manage a series of related, interdependent batch jobs? Then you should check out Airflow. In this episode we spoke with the project’s creator Maxime Beauchemin about what inspired him to create it, how it works, and why…
WSGI 2
Feb 6, 2016 • 64 min
The Web Server Gateway Interface, or WSGI for short, is a long-standing pillar of the Python ecosystem. It has enabled a vast number of web frameworks to proliferate by not having to worry about how exactly to interact with the HTTP protocol and focus…
SymPy With Aaron Meurer
Jan 31, 2016 • 63 min
Looking for an open source alternative to Mathematica or MatLab for solving algebraic equations? Look no further than the excellent SymPy project. It is a well built and easy to use Computer Algebra System (CAS) and in this episode we spoke with the…
RPython with Maciej Fijalkowski
Jan 22, 2016 • 35 min
RPython is a subset of Python that is used for writing high performance interpreters for dynamic languages. The most well-known product of this tooling is the PyPy interpreter. In this episode we had the pleasure of speaking with Maciej Fijalkowski about…
Ben Darnell on Tornado
Jan 16, 2016 • 66 min
If you are trying to build a web application in Python that can scale to a high number of concurrent users, or you want to leverage the power of websockets, then Tornado just may be the library you need. In this episode we interview Ben Darnell about his…
Yves Hilpisch on Quantitative Finance
Jan 8, 2016 • 70 min
Yves Hilpisch is a founder of The Python Quants, a consultancy that offers services in the space of quantitative financial analysis. In addition, they have created open source libraries to help with that analysis. In this episode we spoke with him about…
Scott Sanderson on Algorithmic Trading
Jan 3, 2016 • 87 min
Because of its easy learning curve and broad extensibility Python has found its way into the realm of algorithmic trading at Quantopian. In this episode we spoke with Scott Sanderson about what algorithmic trading is, how it differs from high frequency…
The PEP Talk
Dec 26, 2015 • 105 min
The Python language is built by and for its community. In order to add a new feature, change the specification, or create a new policy the first step is to submit a proposal for consideration. Those proposals are called PEPs, or Python Enhancement…
Eric Holscher on Documentation and Read The Docs
Dec 20, 2015 • 65 min
The first place we all go for learning about new libraries is the documentation. Lack of effective documentation can limit the adoption of an otherwise excellent project. In this episode we spoke with Eric Holscher, co-creator of Read The Docs, about why…
Sylvain Thénault on ASTroid
Dec 11, 2015 • 47 min
The Python AST (Abstract Syntax Tree) is a powerful abstraction that allows for a number of innovative projects. ASTroid is a library that provides additional convenience methods to simplify working with the AST. In this episode we spoke with Sylvain…
Stuart Mumford on SunPy
Dec 4, 2015 • 40 min
What is Solar Physics? How does it differ from AstroPhysics? What does this all have to do with Python? In this episode we answer all of those questions when we interview Stuart Mumford about his work on SunPy. So put on your sunglasses and learn about…
Maneesha Sane on Software and Data Carpentry
Nov 25, 2015 • 44 min
The Software and Data Carpentry organizations have a mission of making it easier for scientists and data analysts in academia to replicate and review each others work. In order to achieve this goal they conduct training and workshops that teach modern…
Erik Tollerud on AstroPy
Nov 19, 2015 • 49 min
Erik Tollerud is an astronomer with a background in software engineering. He leverages these backgrounds to help build and maintain the AstroPy framework and its associated modules. AstroPy is a set of Python libraries that provide useful mechanisms for…
Dariusz Suchojad on Zato
Nov 12, 2015 • 42 min
Service integration platforms have traditionally been the realm of Java projects. Zato is a project that shows Python is a great choice for systems integration due to its flexibility and wealth of useful libraries. In this episode we had the opportunity…
Tom Rothamel on Ren’Py
Nov 6, 2015 • 58 min
Tom Rothamel is an embedded systems engineer who spends his free time working on Ren’Py, a visual novel engine written in Python. Ren’Py allows you to write interactive fiction experiences and deploy them across desktop and mobile platforms. By creating a…
Anthony Scopatz on Xonsh
Oct 30, 2015 • 57 min
Anthony Scopatz is the creator of the Python shell Xonsh in addition to his work as a professor of nuclear physics. In this episode we talked to him about why he created Xonsh, how it works, and what his goals are for the project. It is definitely worth…
Kay Hayen on Nuitka
Oct 23, 2015 • 94 min
Kay Hayen is a systems engineer from Germany who has dedicated his spare time to the creation of Nuitka, a library that will compile your Python project to C++. In this episode we talked to Kay about what inspired him to create the project, how it…
Trent Nelson on PyParallel
Oct 14, 2015 • 72 min
Trent Nelson is a software engineer working with Continuum Analytics and a core contributor to CPython. He started experimenting with a way to sidestep the restrictions of the Global Interpreter Lock without discarding its benefits and that has become the…
Dag Brattli on RxPy
Oct 9, 2015 • 33 min
Dag Brattli is an engineer with Microsoft and in his spare time he created the ported the Reactive Xtensions framework to Python in the form of the RxPy library. In this episode we had the opportunity to speak with Dag and learn more about what ReactiveX…
uWSGI Core Developers
Oct 2, 2015 • 34 min
uWSGI is one of the most versatile application servers available. It was originally written for running Python applications and has since gained functionality to support Perl, Ruby, PHP, and more in addition to the incredible feature set. In this episode…
Griatch on Evennia (Making MUDs with Python)
Sep 28, 2015 • 74 min
Griatch is an incredibly talented digital artist, professional astronomer and the maintainer of the Evennia project for creating MUDs in Python. We got the opportunity to speak with him about what MUDs are, why they’re interesting and how Evennia…
Hylang Core Developers
Sep 18, 2015 • 55 min
We got the chance to talk to some of the core developers of Hylang, which is a Lisp dialect that runs on the Python VM! We talked about how it got started, how it works and why you should try it. Of particular interest is our discussion about using Hylang…
Bryan Van de Ven on Bokeh
Sep 8, 2015 • 57 min
Bryan Van de Ven is the project maintainer for Bokeh, a plotting and visualization toolkit that allows Python developers to easily create attractive interactive visualizations for the web. We talked about the project’s history, some interesting use cases…
Jessica McKellar
Aug 31, 2015 • 51 min
We got the chance to talk to Jessica McKellar about her work in the Python community. She told us about her experience as a director for the PSF, working as the diversity outreach manager for PyCon, and being a champion for improving the on-boarding…
Static Site Generators with Justin Mayer and Roberto Alsina
Aug 25, 2015 • 92 min
In this episode we had the opportunity to discuss the world of static site generators with Roberto Alsina of the Nikola project and Justin Mayer of the Pelican project. They explained what static site generators are and why you might want to use one. We…
Al Sweigart on Python for Non-Programmers
Aug 15, 2015 • 52 min
We got the opportunity to speak with Al Sweigart about his work on books like ‘Automate The Boring Stuff With Python’ and ‘Invent With Python’. We discussed how Python can be useful to people who don’t work as software engineers, why coding literacy is…
Liza Avramenko on CheckIO and Empire of Code
Aug 6, 2015 • 48 min
In this episode we talked to Liza Avramenko, the CEO of CheckIO, about Empire of Code and CheckIO. We discussed what differentiates them from each other and from the other coding games that have been spreading on the internet. One of the main…
Glyph on Ethics in Software
Aug 2, 2015 • 79 min
In this episode we had a nice long conversation with Glyph Lefkowitz of Twisted fame about his views on the need for an established code of ethics in the software industry. Some of the main points that were covered include the need for maintaining a…
Holger Krekel on Py.Test
Jul 23, 2015 • 71 min
In this episode we talked to Holger Krekel about the py.test library. We discussed the various styles of testing that it supports, the plugin system and how it compares to the unittest library. We also reviewed some of the challenges around packaging and…
Damien George Talks To Us About MicroPython
Jul 16, 2015 • 49 min
We talked to Damien George about his work on the Micro Python interpreter and the PyBoard SOC (Systom On a Chip). The combination of the interpreter and SOC allows Python developers to get involved in hardware hacking, as well as letting electronics…
Allen Downey on Teaching Computer Science with Python
Jul 9, 2015 • 37 min
Jacob Kovac on KivEnt
Jul 2, 2015 • 68 min
Eric Schles on Fighting Human Trafficking with Python
Jun 25, 2015 • 73 min
Naomi Ceder, Lynn Root and Tracy Osborn on Diversity in the Python Community
Jun 18, 2015 • 49 min
Brian Granger and Fernando Perez of the IPython Project
Jun 13, 2015 • 81 min
David Baumgold on Flask-Dance, WebhookDB and Open EdX
Jun 7, 2015
Mark Baggett on Python for InfoSec
Jun 3, 2015 • 74 min
Jacob Kaplan-Moss on Addressing Cultural Issues in Tech
May 26, 2015
Jonathan Slenders Talks About Prompt Toolkit
May 19, 2015
Ned Batchelder
May 12, 2015 • 75 min
Travis Oliphant
May 4, 2015 • 52 min
Kivy Core Developers
Apr 27, 2015 • 90 min
Cross Platform GUI Development in Python
Reuven Lerner
Apr 23, 2015
Thomas Hatch
Apr 11, 2015
Podcast.__init__ - Introduction
Mar 21, 2015 • 27 min